Showtime!

You spent hours preparing your outline. You used an equal amount of time making sure every slide was perfect; lots of pictures, few words. You know exactly what message you want to deliver. The only thing left is to make the presentation. hand-wood-alone-close-up-speech-shape-418328-pxhere.com.jpgWhether it is a sales pitch to a valuable customer, a strategy about a change in business practice for your boss, or a training for a group of employees, you know you are about to shine. The lights come up and it is show time. At the end of your presentation, you realize things could have gone better. You ask yourself, “What went wrong?” The answer is you failed to rehearse. Rehearsals are an overlooked preparation, separating professionals from amateurs. No actor would ever step foot on stage without rehearsing; neither should you.

Rehearsing is important before any presentation. hand-screen-man-working-coffee-technology-722541-pxhere.com.jpgRehearsals are like proofreading a document. Few professionals would send out their first draft of a letter. The best have others look over the content, for spelling and grammar. A presentation rehearsal accomplishes the same thing. It allows you to find errors before your audience sees the product. Steve Jobs was notorious for rehearsing dozens of hours before any presentation. TED speakers rehearse hundreds of times before appearing on the red spot.

Here are three rehearsal tips:  rehearse with a clock, practice using your media, and perform in front of a camera. Each has pros and cons. You should rehearse using more than one method.

sand-silhouette-light-white-glass-clock-910835-pxhere.com.jpgTime yourself. Practice with the time counting up and counting down. There are plenty of mobile applications available to help you meet your time hacks. You should know where you need to be in your presentation at particular points in time. Move quickly through your introduction. Quick introductions all time to present main points. Leave at the end to fit a quality conclusion. There is an old adage, “Tell them what your are going to say; say it; tell them what you said.” A rule of thumb for an introduction and conclusion is about 10% of your time for each. That leaves at least 80% of your time for the supporting points of your thesis. End a little short of your allowed time is better than running a few seconds long. The best way to nail your time is rehearsing.

Practice using your media. If you have slides, practice with just the slides. Slides reinforce the points you make verbally. They are not teleprompters. If you have video and audio, make sure they work. Always bring speakers suitable for the room. Practice writing your points on chart paper or boards. Neatness is important.

music-night-celebration-show-space-theatre-905766-pxhere.com.jpgRecord your rehearsal; watch your recording. Reviewing your recorded presentation allows you to edit. By the time you are on stage it is too late. Recording your presentation allows you to hear the pace and volume of your speech. You observe mannerisms, good and bad. You hear words that work well, and not so much. The recording allows you time to fix the bad and improve the good.

Your presentation is all about the story. Rehearsing ensures your story is heard, understood, and acted upon by others. Practicing reveals flaws in your presentation permitting corrections. Practice reinforces your strong points. Failing to rehearse before a presentation is like sending out a first draft of a written product. Your audience sees all the flaws. Time rehearsals. Use the media you intend to show. Record and watch yourself. Taking time to rehearse polishes your act. You present a professional image. Before your next presentation, rehearse, rehearse, rehearse.


Photo Credits

All photos from pxhere.com.  No individual attribution provided.  CC0 license.

One Thousand Words

Sitting through a presentation of slides with nothing but text is a torture bordering cruel punishment. meeting-meal-food-lunch-buffet-education-686174-pxhere.com.jpgAny popular instruction beyond the basics of how to create slide decks emphasize the importance of graphics. Presenters face challenges finding inexpensive images to really make their learning or persuasion points powerfully. Learning about and finding public domain and Creative Common licensed images liberate presenters from corny clip art and open a world of high quality pictures, clip art, and video free from fees and royalties.

The Licenses

Public domain is the least restrictive level of licensing for any work. Something that is in the public domain is a work of intellectual property with an expired copyright, or released by the author into the public domain. Works commissioned by the U. S. Government and many educational institutions release works as public domain. Anyone may use them for any non commercial purpose for free. One may encounter advertising restrictions when images contain recognizable persons.

Creative Commons licenses come in several varieties. You can find the details of each at creativecommons.org. Generally a work released under a Creative Commons license is free to use for many purposes. The originator may choose to require an acknowledgment, limit modifications, limit commercial use, or any combination. Many times you can use works simply by providing credit to the creator or photographer which is a best using any reference not of your own creation.

Where to Find the Images

My readers will find I frequently use flickr.com for most of the images that appear in my posts. I frequently turn to flickr for my slide decks.flickr.PNG Flickr is the big name, but not the only source for free images. Google Images provides access to lots of images. Like flickr, not all are free, but like flickr, you can filter your search result to show just public domain or Creative Commons images.Google.PNG Pxhere.org images are all Creative Commons licensed with no use restrictions. That means anyone can use or remix any image for any legal purpose according to the website. pxhere.PNGClip art is more difficult to find, but a good source is openclipart.org. All images are open source. Users should familiarize themselves with the restrictions of each type of license before using images from any source.

Decks of death should be something of the past. Good presenters use images to make their points. Everyone knows a picture is worth 1000 words. Why fill your slide with boring text when an inspiring image communicates your message better? Learn to find and use free images published in the public domain or under a Creative Commons license and avoid accusations of subjecting others to cruel and unusual punishment during your next presentation.

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Photo Credits

After lunch meeting — https://pxhere.com/en/photo/686174

Screen shot of flickr.com search by author

Screen shot of images.google.com by author

Screen shot of pxhere.org by author

 

 

Don’t Kill Your Audience with a Deck of Death

welcome

Today’s Topic

“Hi. I’m your expert instructor here to teach you how to be an expert almost as good as me. Next slide.”

agenda

“So you can see here all that we are going to cover over our period of training. I’m sure you will notice that I have done all I reasonably can to remove any fun we might have learning this material because I did it all on my slide deck. Next slide.”

LEARNING GOALS

“I made sure to include some learning goals because everyone expects them, but we really are not going to talk about anything like this; don’t worry, it is all in the slide deck because I am such an expert on this topic. Next slide.”

slide-deck

Anyone still awake, or have you all succumb to the slide deck of death? To often, out-of-town experts are hired to train people whose only real expertise lies in preparing really cool slide decks. There is more to training however than a wiz-bang slide show, especially if the topic is mostly information known to the students. Slides have become the go-to choice for training because they provide consistency across a variety of training presentations regardless of the ability of the instructor or the knowledge of the students. There are other forms of media available for instructors to communicate ideas and guide discussions. Learning to use them well improves your presentation.

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These two forms of media are often overlooked for a variety of reasons including poor penmanship, artistic ability of the trainer, and lack of standardization over multiple presentations. The biggest reason is a lack of imagination. Several years ago I learned a little trick to improve my drawing ability in Richard Neil’s book, Police Instructor. Neil suggests creating an image in your favorite graphics program them projecting it onto your paper. Using a #2 pencil, lightly trace the lines. When you reach the point in your presentation to introduce the sketch, grab your marker and draw away while you talk to your students. You end up with the same image from class to class and impress your students with both your knowledge and artistic ability.

I used this secret in an instructor development class I was teaching to explain the training cycle. I asked one of the students to step up to the easel and sketch out a diagram of the cycle while I talked about it. He was a bit apprehensive until he was close enough to the board to see the lines. The class was equally impressed with mine and the student’s knowledge of the cycle, and the secret, once it was revealed. Two lessons in one, how to improve your use of media and improve your understanding of the training cycle, a grand slam!

It may not be possible to recreate a fancy drawing or diagram on a white board in the same way, but for basic imagery it is a great tool. Create lists revealing one point at a time so students are not overwhelmed with information. Alternate colors so students can track lines easier. Practice so your writing is recognizable to others. Simple diagrams that are well thought out ahead of time are easy to draw on a white board with lines and arrows to make connections with thoughts that are expressed in text. Try it out in your next class; you might be surprised how it catches your students attention.

POSTERS

Posters seem like they have gone the way of the dodo bird. They are a great tool to ensure continuity from class to class. They work even when the projector bulb doesn’t. Use dry erase markers to high light important words or ideas on laminated posters.  This technique helps make connections between ideas.

You can create posters using a professional service, or in your living room using markers. Boil down your ideas down to the most essential elements to reduce the number of them. Too many posters end up being nothing more than a low tech slide deck that you have to lug around. The more you have, the heavier they are!

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Too many people use boxed PEs they like from other classes. Using the general format and adapting it to meet your needs however allows you to end up with a product unique to yourmarshmallowtower-marktighe class that is designed specifically to meet your training objectives. Good practical exercises are copied by instructors because designing them is tough work. The first time you have a student build a pasta tower to the ceiling and perches his or her marshmallow at the top, you realize it is better to use your own ideas to reinforce your learning points.

Good exercises challenge students to apply the lessons you teach. They make students think critically about using new skills in familiar situations. They provide students the confidence to adapt your lessons in their every day life, changing their habits and behaviors, and that’s what training is supposed to be about, changing behaviors.

VIDEO CLIPS

Video Clips are great to introduce problems, demonstrate your point, show how to complete an activity, or as part of a practical exercise. Too often trainers use videos as the basis for their entire training, instead of supporting their training and learning points. There are plenty of good videos available on any of the video host web sites. If you are using video for an educational purpose then it should spur discussions and questions about topics related to your learning goals. If not, then it is entertainment and you may have problems with copyright laws. If your video does all the teaching, then students are unlikely to see you as the expert you profess to be.

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Next slide please.  Slide decks have become an important part of the training landscape. Slide decks are not going away soon. Trainers communicate better using other forms of media instead of only using slides. Other forms of media require trainers to think about the points they want students to learn. Each media offers opportunities to engage students, keeping their attention to improve learning outcomes. Posters, chart paper, white boards, practical exercises, and video clips each offer instructors opportunities to break away from the slide deck and improve learning. Each form of media has pros and cons. Use a variety of media in your training to break up the boredom of the slide deck and show your students you really are an expert.

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Photo Credits

Author except the marshmallow tower.  Marshmallow tower by Mark Tighe under Creative Commons Attribution license from flickr.com:  https://www.flickr.com/photos/mjtmail/14113827338/in/photolist-o2yZKQ-8W4FUQ-8W1CxZ-nvc49E-9NDbrG-9NDcWb-9NDdLs-9NApRH-9NAur2-9NAmLB-9NAnBt-jeQaVE-9NAtKa-9NAsga-9NAsXc-9NDhzm-9NAorP-Hsu3i-bDzKGQ-dc4jeH-8xac39-BMSG49-BXt5Le-8Ur9Rp-rV2Uwa/

Voice: Feathery Touch vs. Booming Motors

onceuponatimeiattendedapresentationgivenbyareallysmartpersonwhospokesofast,butrathersoftlylikehewastryingtosayeverythinghehadtosayinonebreathsohecouldquicklycompletehispresentation, breath, andgospendtherestofhisallotedtimedrinkingcoffewiththosewhocametohearhimspeak.

During my instructor deImagevelopment classes, I teach a segment on the importance of using your voice. Trying to write a wimpy presenters fast pace, low volume and even monotone speech is more difficult than demonstrating it for a class. There are many reasons people use poor vocal skills while presenting such as lack of confidence in front of others, inexperience as a presenter and contempt for the topic. The opposite is also true. Speaking at a rapid pace in a loud volume continuously sounds like you are recording a commercial for the latest monster truck rally. Three cliches come to mind when considering the use of one’s voice during a presentation. The first is “Slow is smooth and smooth is fast”. The second, “Variety is the spice of life.” The final, “Silence is Golden.”

Slow is Smooth; Smooth is Fast

Speaking slower during a presentation allows you to select the best words to express your ideas the first time. Students understand what you say better. A slower pace allows students time to hear what you said and think about how it relates to them so they can effectively incorporate that information into their behavior. But what about the fast part? Great question! If your students understand what you said the first time, have time to reflect upon its meaning and ask necessary follow-up questions you only have to state the point once. No need to repeat what students all ready know. Fewer repetitions allow time discussing information unfamiliar to students. Result; better learning, and fewer remedial trainings.

Variety is the Spice of Life

Changing your pace, volume and tone of voice helps keep students attention. Turn up the volume to clue students of important information they may see again, say on a test. Use a fast pace to sound like the voice over announcer on TV reading the legal disclaimer for a predatory loan suggests important information has been provided and is available to reference later. A soft whisper tells students you are sharing a well guarded trade secret. Now they belong to an inner circle of trust. Certain patterns may suggest transition from one topic to the next. An effective phrase a friend uses is, “ALL righty, then…” his clue to the class the discussion is changing.

Silence is Golden

Silence seems the reverse of what a trainer should do while standing before a group of students. Periods of silence encourage participation. Ask a question and wait for someone to answer. Make a controversial statement and allow a student to challenge your position. Student participation always improves training.

ImageNext time you find yourself in front of a class or giving a presentation remember and use these three rules. Silence is only bad because you do not know what to say next. Use it to encourage student interaction. Silence is golden. Using a slower pace allows information to sink in like a slow steady rain. Students absorb the information the first time allowing the class to progress faster. Slow is smooth; smooth is fast. Changing up pace, volume and tone signals students about important information, topic changes and help keep their attention. Variations in vocal qualities keep things interesting. Variety is the spice of life. During your next introduction, let the class know, YOOUU ARRRRRE REEEADDY TO RUUMMMBBBLLLLLLLEEEEE?!?!?!?!?!?!?


 

Photo Credits

Both pictures from Flickr.com used under Creative Commons Attribution License

Nick Chill

Mitchell James

Inspire Others to Go Forth and do Good

ImageAs the hour draws to a close the speaker comments on what a great bunch your group has been. She was so concerned things would not go well because she was not sure what she had to offer would meet the needs of the rest of the team or that she had enough material for the 60 minutes she was allowed. She asks of there are any questions; there are none, and thanks you all for coming. You stand up hoping to sneak out of the room before your boss has an opportunity to corner you about the poor performance of your direct report during the monthly senior staff training, too late, he yells across the room to meet him in his office in five minutes. What went wrong?

Often employees or outside subject matter experts are asked to make presentations about hot topics. Powerful presentations are not guaranteed just because the presenter possesses expert or referent power and may deny the members of the organization the inspiration to do great things with what they have learned. Even when the person makes a great presentation, they may end up talking about everything except the one or two areas of concern for your organization. Taking the time to identify objectives of what you want participants to learn helps you and the presenter focus on material that will enlighten, educate and inspire. Steven Covey calls it beginning with the end in mind.

It may seem too simple to write out a comprehensive terminal learning objective. Doing so focuses the efforts of the trainer to only that information which will help the audience achieve the final educational goal. The end result is a focused presentation meeting the needs of the audience. Steven Covey covers this principal when he advises his readers to begin with the end in mind.

There are three important parts of every learning objective whether it is the capstone objective, or a smaller piece of the puzzle. The parts are action, condition and standard. The action is what you want the student to learn how to accomplish when they complete the training. An example might be something like, “The clerk will complete a telephonic customer order on the computer.” The conditions for the task or action to be completed should include the environment and any tools or resources available while completing the action. Often training is conducted in a classroom or conference style setting and that should be reflected in the condition statement. Finally spell out how someone will know when the student has achieved success by stating the standard. This can be performance steps, standards for a finished product, a score on an examination or any other means of measuring performance. Often in a classroom this may be as simple as, “The student will respond correctly to questions related to the action.”

This is a sample of a TLO for a classroom setting where there will be no formal testing.

Action: Complete a telephonic customer order on the computer.

Conditions: A classroom environment, a block of instruction and random questions from the instructor.

Standard: Correctly answer questions related to taking a customer order on the phone and entering the data into the computer.

Ideally action statements start with a verb. Conditions describe resources available to complete the action. Standards should be measurable and attainable, very much like setting SMART goals.

Establishing learning objectives when assigning someone to conduct training improves communication and enables the trainer to understand the perceived needs of organization. Given an objective such as the one above instead of some generic statement like, “Hey Smith, I need you to give a class on that new software at the next staff training conference next week.” With the first, employees should walk out of the training understanding how to take customer orders using the new software. Who knows what you will get with the second. When you are tasked to provide training, having an understanding of the process allows you to develop a TLO, run it by the person who assigned it and then help you focus your attention on what is necessary to meet expectations.

Developing training objectives help trainers focus on presenting important information in the time allowed for students to achieve a given task. When assigned, both the manager and the trainer have better expectations of what the finished product includes. Quality learning objectives contain three parts, the action, the conditions, and the standards. When assigned by your manager to train others using a learning goal ensures you and he understand what is expected of you. Don’t let your next presentation flop. Take the time to develop an objective for the time you are given to teach others.

References

Covey, Stephen R. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. electronic edition. New York, NY: Rosetta Books, 2012.

Henry, V. E. (2002). The COMPSTAT paradigm: management accountability in policing, business, and the public sector. Flushing, NY: Looseleaf Law Publications.

http://www.grayharriman.com/ADDIE_Writing_Learning_Objectives.htm

Photo by tiffa 130 on flicka  http://www.flickr.com/photos/tiffanyday/4233065842/sizes/o/in/photolist-7s4yZQ-8Wryi-ffna1C-47iP3d-52AQpJ-bGYWzB-4AufPZ-6tcK9H-9TLQ4V-8NuGDD-8Hg5U4-9JMiVv-9JMita-9JgqsL-7YrzMS-dKTJnF-8HpL4e-BFAGU-eNMWSj-eNNwHC-7n4gRh-eNN2rq-bZzNxs-c4SdKS-c5qaBj-c4SXZQ-bZH6nN-bZSrEN-c5EoAW-bZyRyh-5Vc4Mb-5Vc4uY-gx8cF-e4GEBY-dtYtxp-5F11Pu-4gL5v1-4tppYd-Gfs6t-BXKac-c5ECoN-c5Er4b-c5EzqU-c5EtBq-c5Es7u-c5EpMy-c5Ev57-c5EAUf-c5ExWq-bZPjLw-bZPucw/ used with a CC Attribution Licesne.