This is a week of giving thanks. The tradition memorializes a year of cooperation between the European immigrants and native people who lived in the Plymouth Massachusetts area in the early 1600s. Thanksgiving is frequently celebrated with family and only for events, people, or possessions we perceive as blessings. Leaders must also remember those adverse followers and events that challenged them to grow.
Some of you are wondering how we can be grateful for the bad things that happened. Adverse events and people cause us to grow as people and leaders. Earlier this month I posted an excerpt from a book one of my Soldiers is writing (http://bit.ly/33yL14Q). His book details many of the bad things happened during our deployment. He shares some of the struggles he had upon returning. He makes it clear that those adverse experiences made him stronger. He says that those struggles set a standard for what bad means.
Jocko Willink tells a story of a time one of his SEALs came to his office with some bad news, The SEAL told Jocko he knew what he was going say, “Good.” Jocks has the philosophy that every experience is good (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IdTMDpizis8). You just have to figure out why the experience is good. His thinking aligns with the old saying on rainy days, “Every cloud has a silver lining.”
I am not, nor have I ever been a morning person. However after a lifetime of seeing the struggles of others, I know my life is pretty good. I may not have the material wealth of Warren Buffet but I have more than those living in other parts of the world where war, poverty, starvation, and violence thrive. As a result, even on those mornings when my head is foggy and I struggle to make my first coffee I great others with, “Good Morning!” because I know what bad mornings look, sound, and smell like and most mornings are good compared to those bad mornings I and others experienced.
Being grateful is important. Leaders need to speak their gratitude. Effective leaders publicly thank others for their efforts, contributions, ideas, and hard work. They thank employees, volunteers, board members, customers, clients, vendors, and other logisticians for their contributions to the success of the organization. They recognize the sacrifices made by family members so their loved ones can contribute to the organization’s success.
Like the celebration after the harvest of 1621 Plymouth, we should give thanks for our blessings. Gratitude is an important leadership quality. Be grateful for all your blessings, even the ones that you do not currently view as a blessing. Tough life lessons are those that are best remembered. Publicly thank those who contribute to success. Demonstrate gratitude year round not just the fourth Thursday of November. If you are a leader, you have much to be thankful for. Those who follow you could have chosen to follow someone else. Thank your followers so they know they chose well.
In 2004, I was assigned to be a Platoon Sergeant for 2nd Platoon, Headquarters Battery (Forward) 2nd Battalion, 197th Field Artillery Regiment (In Lieu of Military Police). We were a bunch of highly skilled cannon cockers, fire direction specialists, wrench turners, and clerks. Some of us had experience in law enforcement but none of us ever trained to be MPs or Infantrymen. It did not matter. The Army needed MPs, not artillery, to fight the insurgents in Iraq so we received 10 or 14 days of training and became MPs. The training was squad-centric, nothing for platoon or company leaders. As a result, none of the Platoon Leaders, Platoon Sergeants, the First Sergeant, nor the Company Commander received any training to be or lead MPs. With our little training, we boarded planes and headed to staging areas in Kuwait determined to do our jobs to the best of our humble abilities.
we arrived in the Middle East, our company was split and served in
three locations, Mosul, Tikrit, and Baqubah. The Baqubah mission was
to provide 24/7 force protection to the provincial police
headquarters building downtown and train Iraqi Police. Everyone knew
Mosul and Tirkrit were dangerous. None of us had ever heard of
Baqubah. It had to be relatively safe, right? I had the opportunity
to visit the newly renovated police training facility in Mosul. It
was nice, rivaling the academy police officers in New Hampshire
attend. Given the quality of the Mosul police academy, the perceived
safety of Baqubah, and the opportunity to complete a mission that
would help the locals develop security forces to protect themselves,
I volunteered my platoon to execute the Baqubah mission. When we
arrived at the Diyala Police Provincial Police Headquarters we all
realized that not only were we not in New Hampshire anymore Dorthy,
this place looked nothing like the facility in Mosul!
One of the Soldiers in my platoon, Aaron Marshall, is writing a book, Baqubah; Bones and Blood, about his experiences during that deployment. He provided me an advanced copy of his manuscript. He expects it to be ready for publication in 2020. Marshall reminds me of Medal of Honor recipient Maynard Smith who demonstrated exceptional bravery under fire, but always found trouble when the bullets were not flying. Marshall is a very brave person but always had a knack for finding trouble. Still, he was someone I wanted by my side when the shooting started.
have published a veteran based post each Memorial and Veterans Day
since starting my blog. After reading Aaron’s manuscript, I thought
he did an excellent job of describing many parts of the experiences
of combat veterans. I asked permission to publish an excerpt of his
book here for Veterans Day. He granted me that permission. What
follows is a brief excerpt as written by him with a few edits for
clarification. His writing is graphic and may be offensive to some
readers. I decided to publish this post using his graphic words
because war is both graphic and offensive. I will post when the book
read and reflect on the words and experiences of PFC Aaron Marshall.
call sign in Iraq was “Spoonman”. We were told to come up with
our own call signs, and I loved the song by Soundgarden so I went
with that. At that point I had never tried heroin and wouldn’t
until my second divorce about 7 years later. But that’s a story for
another time. An even darker tale of the human experience; loss,
redemption. Now that I think about it, it
was sort of a self-induced experience very similar to Iraq; to
War. I relived the terror of death on a daily basis with that drug,
was one of the lucky few who was able to kick it before it took me
I had too many experiences with death. Too many. I’ve felt the breeze created by a snipers bullet gently flow by my face. I’ve been hit with anti-tank rockets so close it made me think the world had ended. I’ve had septic shock, pancreatitis, renal failure, and felt the peaceful calm that comes over you when you die. I’ve overdosed too many times and woken up to people standing over me crying.
I’m still here. I’m still trudging forward, marching
on. To what I haven’t the slightest idea. I have no idea why I’m
still here. Dumb luck maybe? A purpose I don’t yet know? I would go
with dumb luck over fate. Regardless, I give thanks to the people
around me. If I gave thanks to a supposed god, I would be squandering
an opportunity to make an actual difference in the world. That was
one of the original ideas behind me joining the military
in the first place. After September 11th 2001, most young men my age
were jolted by a sense of
to do something, anything.
But still only a few signed up to voluntarily fight in a War that we
all knew was coming. We
all wanted it. There was that part of the collective unconscious of
the country that needed war; vengeance,
The same type of situation occurred in Iraq in 2004 when a Sergeant
From the 3rd ID and a Lieutenant
ended up both losing one of their arms during an RPG attack on a
patrol. We all felt completely helpless immediately after.
within ourselves for the answer to the question why? Why did it
happen? Why did the RPG enter the front of the Humvee like it did?
Why that road? Why them? Why not me? And every single man and woman
at the Police Station wanted vengeance,
We knew we would get it but we just didn’t know when. It was part
of all our collective unconscious at the station. We
would get it. At least that’s how I felt about it.
one of our QRF (Quick
Reaction Force) missions
shortly after the SGT
severely wounded, we would get our revenge. We needed to kill one of
the enemy, a hundred if we could, to make us all feel like we were
doing something good for our wounded family. My team got called out
to pick up a soldier that had been wounded by an IED (Improvised
Explosive Device, commonly called a roadside bomb) just
down the road from us on what was called “RPG Alley”. When we
went to pick him up, it was a dangerous feeling, a feeling like
something bad was going to happen. I’d get that feeling from time
to time, and I learned to trust it. Over time that feeling was
correct more often than not, and at the very least that feeling would
heighten your senses so you’d be even more ready for an ambush.
never knew when and if another IED was going to be set off after the
first one. But we had to get the wounded out. The soldier was in good
spirits. Pretty bloodied but happy to be getting the hell out of
there and onto a base with medical care.
to F.O.B. Warhorse we were ambushed by some AK-47 fire that pinged
off the vehicle in front of me then skipped just over our vehicle. I
got out of the kill zone by ducking down into the vehicle. When the
gunfire stopped hitting our vehicle my SGT
yelled, “shoot!” I popped up, unlatched the turret, swung it
counterclockwise, locked the turret back in, and looked down the
barrel of my M249 SAW. I didn’t even have to aim. I was looking
directly at a man slightly crouched beside a wall, exactly where the
gunfire was coming from, holding a weapon. I didn’t even think
about it. I let loose as many rounds as I could and I’ll never
forget how he instantly slumped to the ground when my first bullet
hit, and stayed motionless (Marshall
said that the gunner in the next Humvee behind him also engaged the
insurgent. Karl rarely received credit for his role in that fight.
Marshall remembers hearing the gun firing).
I ducked back into the Humvee and said the SGT,
“Holy shit I got him!”, and
we called in the confirmed kill.
I got back to the Police
you could see the look of everyone had changed from a somber mood to
a look of vindication. None of us ever had a conversation about these
feelings. In fact, at least with those I associated with, we didn’t
really talk about feelings at all, ever.
way I perceived, it was that we got our revenge for what happened to
I think that helped us move past the incredible horror of being
It helped me move past it and not dwell on the event so much. Of
course there was nothing we could have done. But you still feel like,
and always feel like, there is something you could have done to
still hard to piece everything together; the
entire year. Where to start; how
to finish telling it. It doesn’t help that I had multiple head
traumas while I was there and
multiple head traumas when I returned home. But I’m determined to
tell my story, our
story of the 2/197th FA unit that went to Baqubahh, Iraq in 2004 as
hastily trained MP’s. The Army owned us and
we would all do our part to make sure every last one of us got home.
We would do our best, and
that’s exactly what we did, our
best. I wasn’t trained to be a machine gunner in the turret of a
by the end of the tour, I guarantee I was one of the best. That’s
not cockiness in the sense that I thought I was better than anyone
else, but a sense of confidence in my abilities. A turret gunner
needs that confidence to do his or her job. Without it, fear can
creep in and take over, rendering you useless. No, I wasn’t better
than any other gunner in the war,
I was simply one of the best. I hope that now makes sense.
To paraphrase one of my favorite schools of Philosophy, the Stoics, and more specifically, Epictetus; there are things in our control like our opinions, desires, and inclinations. There are also things which are not in our control like our body, possessions, honor, and reputation. So why worry about the things that are not in our control? Well, that turret and anyone around it that wanted to do us harm was in my control for that year. I made it my mission to be the baddest motherfucker I could possibly be. It was out of my character. But like an actor that gets stuck in role after making a movie, I became a machine gunner. I became the turret. It was my home. That 2 inch wide strap for a seat was my bed, my home, my church, my religion, and baptism by fire is not an understatement. Some jobs you ask for in the Army, but for the most part you just do what you are told as an enlisted man. And I was told to get in the turret. I did my job and I did it well.
Marshall’s book is now available. You may purchase it at Barnes and Noble in paperback. Hard cover is not available for retail at this time.
In an earlier post http://bit.ly/2N0pCwi I proposed that the foundation of leadership was character. I still believe that to be true. Character is the sum of your habits that tell others what you value. Leaders should adopt habits so others know they value their organization’s guiding principals. Organizations make a big deal out of their organizational values or guiding principals because those behavior are what they want the world to think the organization represents. Rarely do people talk about the corner stone of the foundation. However, if character is the foundation of leadership, trust is the cornerstone. If trust is so important, you have to wonder how do you develop and maintain trust. Like being a good leader, developing and maintaining trust takes effort.
Trust often exists
in new organizations whether a company, team, or partnership. The
same principal applies when new people join an organization; for the
most part they are trusted. People generally trust each other. In
spite of the warnings our parents gave us as children, and we as
parents admonish our children, people trust strangers. That is one
reason scammers are successful. Even scammers are trusting of others.
Just watch any of James Veitch’s Scamalot videos on YouTube or
Mashable to see him scam the scammers. The scammers trust him to do
what he says he will do, well, until they realize he is jerking them
Trusting one another, family, friend, or co-worker is an important human quality. Early humans had to rely on each other to survive. As a result our brains developed to release certain hormones when we trust and cooperate with other people (Sinek, 2014, pp 33-38). Someone had to guard the existing provisions while another group went to hunt. The guards had to trust the hunters to hunt. Hunters had to trust the guards to protect what little they already gathered.
Today we have the
same need to rely on others to survive and thrive. Military
commanders rely on their higher headquarters to coordinate resources
they require to accomplish missions. They also rely on subordinate
commanders to execute tasks without direct supervision as well as
their peers to their left, right, and above (l mean in the air over
the battlefield) them. Each risks potentially life threatening tasks
with little but a promise that those around him or her will complete
their tasks and the others rely on that commander complete his or
During World War I
Major Charles Whittlesey found himself in command of his 1st
Battalion of the 308th Infantry Regiment along with
attachments from other 77th Division units in a pocket
behind enemy lines. The plan was that the division would attack to a
phase line with several units on line and in mass to overrun the
German trenches. As the attack progressed the units on Whittlesey’s
flanks began to break and retreat. Commanders on his flanks warned
him they had lost contact with units to the regiment’s left and
right. Division headquarters assured Whittlesey several times during
the attack his flanks were covered. He reached his objective that
day, but was the only American unit to do so. The Germans restored
their lines by the end of the next day and surrounded the 1-308th(+).
Whittlesey trusted Maj. Gen. Alexander when he continued to press the
attack. In spite of that let down, he continued to trust that the
General would find a way to relieve them. Alexander had sent for
reinforcements, but only a small number reached Whittlesey’s
position before they were cut off from the Allied lines.
Whittlesey established a strong defensive position and encouraged his men to fight well and have faith they would be relieved. His phone lines had been cut off by the Germans requiring him to rely on carrier pigeons to communicate with his regiment and division. The Soldiers of the 308th fought through six days of repeated German attacks rather than surrendering. They trusted their fellow Soldiers would fight their way forward to relieve them. In the movie version of this story, Major Whittlesey tells his junior leaders that they will win the battle. He trusted MG Alexander would be determined to relieve them. Whittlesey was right. Alexander trusted that Whittlesey would hold out as long as he could. Alexander used the Lost Battalion to motivate other units to fight hard. He continued to pressure the German lines to reestablish contact with Whittlesey and his men. The Germans could not continue to stand against the pressure on the lines while also trying to dislodge the 308th. The 77th Division broke through and finally relieved Whittlesey and the men of the 308th Infantry (Durr, 2018 & Carabatsos, 2001).
In this example
there was lot of reason not to trust, but leaders did trust each
other. The leaders passed along their trust to the Soldiers. The
result was an Allied victory in the Argonne Forrest that led to the
cease fire several weeks later on November 11, 1918.
Scamalot videos show, sometimes it is easier to trust strangers than
people we already know. Strangers have yet to do anything to cause us
not to trust them. We know the flaws of those around us which may
cause us to not trust them as much a those strangers. This is where
leadership happens. Establishing trust is easy. Maintaining trust
within existing organizations takes the most work. It would have been
easy for Major Whittlesey to surrender and stop trusting his
commanders. They had let him down by not telling him the truth about
the other units falling to the rear.
Trust erodes as
people are unwilling or unable to live up to expectations. Jim is
unable to complete a project on time because Pam did not budget
enough money to complete her assigned task. Pam did not know the task
would cost that much because she relied on a vendor’s quote. The
vendor was out of stock so Pam had to order from another supplier and
request additional funding. Both took more time than planned and
jammed up Jim. Now the manager does not trust either of them, and
neither Jim nor Pam trust each other. None of the people in this
story intended to behave unethically. The vendor did not predict
Pam’s order and ran out of stock. Pam trusted the vendor had a good
supply of what she needed. Jim trusted Pam had checked out the
vendor. Michael, the manager, trusted Jim could lead the project and
complete it on time and within budget.
On the surface
keeping trust is simple. As the above example shows it only takes a
small mistake to loose trust. However if people live by the
organizational principals, difficult situations can be navigated so
lessons learned are applied in the future. People have to take
responsibility for their mistakes. Leaders have to forgive those
mistakes and reestablish trust.
responsible for building and maintaining trust. They do this in
several ways. Leaders define their organization’s guiding
principals through regular communication, education, and setting the
example. Leaders allow others to make mistakes, analyze what went
wrong, and learn how to avoid those mistakes in the future. The final
step for leaders is to allow the employee to try again. Doing so
shows he still has trust in the employee and has faith he will
succeed. Leaders respectfully share employee mistakes so others learn
what not to do. You do this by setting them up as the new subject
matter expert. Employees rarely act to sabotage you and the
organization. If they do, you need to take appropriate disciplinary
steps which also establishes that you can be trusted to make hard
There are times when
bad things happen out of the leader’s control. When handled poorly,
those events destroy trust between key players. Rebuilding trust is
difficult. Leaders ensure trust is rebuilt after a crisis. There are
several ways to reestablish trust such as using some sort of
mediation process to settle disputes between aggrieved parties;
reassigning people to new positions to reduce friction; terminating
those who willfully violated the organization’s guiding principals;
training about roles, responsibilities and shared values; or
celebrating victories through teamwork over extreme challenges.
Regardless of the reason trust has
been lost, it is the leader’s responsibility to regain trust within
the organization. The leader takes action allowing
others to regain trust.
Trust is the
cornerstone of character, the foundation of leadership. Leaders are
responsible to establish and maintain trust in their teams and
organizations. Often it is easier to trust a stranger than the person
you worked with for years because of many large and small
transgressions violating trust. Trust however is the force that
inspires others to do more than they thought they could do. Leaders
consistently communicate organizational guiding principals and live
those principals as a model for others to follow. Leaders keep open
lines of communication to detect the earliest signs of mistrust to do
what is necessary to repair transgressions. Sometimes leaders have to
face the fact that someone deliberately did something wrong for
selfish reasons and needs to be separated from the organization.
While rare, failing to take such action causes increased distrust.
Leaders allow honest mistakes by reviewing causes and effects with
employees and developing means to correct those mistakes. They treat
the mistakes as a learning opportunity for everyone which shows
respect and builds trust. Like Soldiers on a battlefield surrounded,
without food, water or ammunition, organizations with strong ties
developed by trusting relationships can accomplish deeds that seem
impossible. Trust is the strong cornerstone of every leadership
Carabatsos , Jim, 2001, The lost battalion, Directed by Mulcahy, A&E Network
you want others to remember is worth saying three times. One of the
first times I remember hearing this rule was during DARE Officer
Training with Linda Lang. She taught me to make learning points by
using an auditory method, a visual method, and a kinetsetic method.
Several months later I attended a class about courtroom
presentations. Ray Mellow introduced first of his rules:
that if you wanted the judge and jury to remember an
important element of your case,
repeat the point three times. About
a year later I was taking a
firearms instructor class. The instructor, Brad Parker, told
us to ensure students remembered what we taught them to tell they
what you are going to tell them in a class as an introduction, tell
them during the lesson, and then tell them what you told them in the
review. I am not a rocket scientist, (although I can operate a rocket
launcher) but I learned after three times of being told that if you
want your message to stick, repeat it three times.
When I applied this rule to my communications with others I
learned how to use different communications methods to improve
retention. Repeating something three times is an obvious lesson for
trainers. It is also an important lesson for leaders. People remember
better if you tell them something and then follow up with at least
two other reminders using different means communication such as a
phone call, a calendar invite, a text message, or an email.
This simple rule can
be used all areal of your career and life. As simple as it is,
execution can be hard. I gave a task to a direct report. A couple
days later I had a follow up conversation checking on progress. He
said he forgot. I thought I should only have to tell him once. Then I
could remembered times when my boss spoke to me about completing a
project or task. I recognized that he had to remind me a couple times
after that first tasking before it really stuck in my mind. The
lesson I took from that event with my employee was to apply the
repeat three times rule.
The key to using this strategy effectively requires some
creativity to avoid hen pecking. Calling an employee into your office
and telling him, “I want you to do this, I want you to do this, I
want you to do this.” is not effective. Likewise, calling the
employee into your office in the next two days and asking, “Are you
done yet?” makes you sound like an annoying sibling on a family
road trip. How you implement this strategy requires you to identify
your communication strengths and how your intended receiver best
receives information. Using three different methods increase
Begin by simply telling the other person what you want or expect. You might suggest they take a few notes. Follow up within 24 hours with an email, letter, a social media private message, or a sticky note. Place a phone call or send a text message two or three days later to see if the other person has any questions and check on preliminary progress. Using this method allows you to pitch your message three times and reinforce the importance of the task or appointment. Each connection allows opportunities for additional information sharing, idea swapping, asking of questions and clarification of expectations which improves the quality of the finished product. Using different modes of communication, in person, in writing and by telephone, also improves communication by appealing to different communication styles of others. What they miss in one, they pick up in another. Making your pitch three times means you are more likely to have results three weeks from now during your follow up meeting,
I commonly employ this tactic. I start by reaching out to someone
by mentioning to them I would like to talk with them soon about
whatever the project or task is. We set a time then to meet. Giving
them notice allows them time to think about the topic. During the
meeting, I tell the person what I expect. I frame the expectations
using loose interpretation of the SMART goal model so they have the
information they need. A couple days later I will follow up with an
email. I may tell them I think the project deserves a goal setting
sheet and ask for a time to meet again to clarify expectations and
standards. After someone has worked with me for awhile, they arrive
at these meetings with a completed worksheet (see my post on setting
goals: ). We reviewing and adjust the goal. I set calendar reminders
during that meeting for appropriate follow up briefings. It is
uncommon for projects not to be completed on time.
Three repeat works equally well with family and friends. For
example, you ask your spouse about a weekend away in the fall. She
says sure so you figure you are all set. I found that touching base a
few days later with something like, “How does Columbus Day Weekend
sound in Maine?” Again she agrees. A few days later follow up with
more of the details. When Columbus Day Weekend arrives, you will be
less likely to hear yours spouse say she planned on working the
rummage sale at the church on Saturday afternoon instead of spending
the weekend with you.
Conversely, you can reverse the tables. When your friend mentions
going to the big game in a few weeks, reach back to him a few days
later. “Hey, who is ordering the ticket?” Such a question does
two things. It shows you paid attention, and helps your figure if
your friend really wanted to go to the game. A text a few days later
about how much you are about going with your friend keeps your friend
engages and demonstrates your excitement about the event.
During this message, the repeat three times rule was introduced by a series of three teaching stories. In the middle of the article three examples of failure were provided to reinforce the message of the importance of the repeat three times. The middle of the essay also provided directions to apply the repeat three time rule by using three means of communication for each pitch, and examples on how to apply them at work, home, and with friends. Here, in the conclusion, I discussed each item I said I was going to discuss again to ensure my messages were received, understood and acted upon. Go forth and start and start repeating!
All images from PXHere.com used with 0CC license. No other attribution available.
“Contact right!”, shouted the point man at the sound of
small arms fire. The team reacted instinctively. Every member of the team came on
line and returned fire from covered positions. The team leader assessed the
situation and reported back to the squad leader. The squad leader directed his second team to
flank the enemy position. When ready they laid down suppressing fire drawing
the attention away from the first team. The second team leader came up on the
radio, “Shift left!” The first team adjusted their aim to the left as the
second team began to move across the enemy position. As the second team neared
the middle of the enemy position he called for the first team to cease firing
and they did. Once across the position, the second team leader advised the
first team leader. The first team leader led his Soldiers across the position
90 degrees from the second team’s assault. Within a few minutes the shooting
stopped. The enemy was suppressed and withdrew. The squad was victorious.
React to Contact is a critical Infantry battle drill. It is
the foundation of ground combat tactics used by Hannibal during the Second
Punic War. A well drilled squad or
platoon can execute the drill with the few words shared in the above story
because every squad and platoon in the Army does it the same way, well at least
the successful squads and platoons. When executed well, a smaller force has the
ability to defeat larger forces. This basic principal of movement is a
procedure known to all Infantrymen because it works. This drill allows leaders
to initiate action with few words and little direction. In this example the
squad leader was the senior leader yet the only decision he made and direction
he provided was to a single team leader to flank the enemy. In this battle
drill there are only three decisions for the squad leader to make; commit your
second team to suppressive fire and allow the platoon to flank, execute the
flank with your second team, or break contact. Infantry squad leaders and team
leaders rehearse this drills hundreds of times so they know when to suppress, when
to attack, and when to withdraw.
Leading an organization of any size becomes easier with
formal, practiced procedures. Formal procedures appear to remove a leader’s freedom
to make decisions. The opposite is true. Well thought procedures allow leaders
to detach from the current crisis and plan for what comes next. Benefits
include increased speed by reducing the number of decisions required of a
leader, specified lateral lines of communication increase responses, and
required actions for teams and individuals without additional instruction.
Reducing Decision Options
Freedom is defined by dictionary.com as the state of being
free or at liberty rather than in confinement or under physical restraint; or
the power to determine action without restraint. Formal procedures may confine
some leaders because they have limited choices. However, well thought out
procedures identify best practices and offer a short menu of options proven to
work reliably. Formal procedures allow leaders to stick their heads above the
weeds and make big picture decisions
At the front-line level of the React to Contact Drill, the
squad leader has a variety of choices. He can direct the supporting team to
provide additional fire power to suppress the enemy and ask the platoon to
flank. The squad leader can establish a base of fire from the flanking element
and have the element who established contact to maneuver across the enemy’s
front. He can call for artillery or air support. He can withdraw. However, it
is only through the actions of the team in contact, executing without direction,
that he as the freedom to evaluate the situation and determine which course of
action is best. Without this drill, the
squad and team leaders would have to solve each problem as it occurs.
In organizations outside the military the same principals
are true. The front line leader has a
process to execute. For example, a new employee is assigned to work in the
leader’s team. If the organization has a process to orient new employees, none
of the leaders need to spend much time figuring out what the new person needs
to learn. The leaders follow the check list, tailor the learning to the new
person’s position, and the new person quickly becomes a functioning member of
the team. Without a procedure to welcome new team members, leaders loose time
figuring out what the new person needs to know. They make lots of decisions
about what parts of what organizational documents new team members need to
read. The leaders need to figure out what administrative processes must be
completed to ensure the employee is paid, receives benefits, and knows what is
expected of him or her.
A new employee orientation procedure takes away some
decision making from leaders but only because the leaders decided earlier what
new team members needed to do. Now instead of spending a few days figuring out
what to teach the new guy, who should teach it, and where the information is
stored, the leader turns to the procedure and execute. The procedure frees his
time to decide on other matters.
Lateral Lines of Communication
Establishing internal lines of communication allow lower
level leaders to coordinate actions and support without having to always run to
the boss. The boss does need to know what is going on, but does not need to
make or approve every decision. Establishing peer-to-peer communication
channels frees up senior leaders to look farther ahead. Procedures specify what
types of decisions senior leaders make and what types of decisions leaders
lower on the org chart may make.
In the infantry squad example, peer leaders, the team
leaders, directly communicated their intentions and directions to move and
shift fires. This communication allowed the squad leader monitor the situation.
The squad leader had the freedom to call for more resources and determine what
actions to take after the enemy attack was stopped.
A non-military example of this principal is a nonprofit
providing a service to their clients. A
new client is referred for service and appears at the office. The person
meeting with the client knows the organization has a procedure for new client
intakes and referrals. The employee welcomes the client and moves them through
the intake procedure and determines the client’s needs. The employee directly
contacts outside organizations necessary to provide resources and services for
the client without having to clear each referral through a manager.
Organizational leaders recognized the needs for those services and previously established
processes to refer clients. As a result, the clients receive services and
resources quickly because the number of people involved and the levels of
communication are reduced.
Action without Instructions
Formal procedures provide direction to employees about how
to perform their jobs. Procedures spell out what kinds of decisions employees
can make and what decisions and information require the boss’s attention. In
the infantry squad example, each team member knows when they received contact
to move on line to ensure they had clear lines of fire towards the enemy and to
find a place of cover to return fire. They did not have to wait for direction
from the team leader. They were expected to take those actions without directs
in order to free the team leader to report the situation to the squad leader.
In an example from the private sector, Tim Ferriss talks
about how he empowered his assistants to deal with customer services issues in
his book The Four Hour Work Week and several of his podcasts. He found his
assistant was reaching out to him several times every day for him to decide how
to deal with unhappy customers. Tim realized he was not able to focus on
growing his new business when he was dealing with those types of issues. He
developed a list of ways the customer service assistant could offer help
without consulting Tim and what types of customer issues he reserved to resolve
himself. As a result, Ferriss was able to return his attention to growing the
business and his customers received improved and faster resolutions to their
Procedures receive a bad rap because organizations implement
them poorly and never review them to determine their continued relevance. The purpose of procedures is to create
leadership freedom by providing a menu of choices for common events rather than
problem solving every time something similar happens. As a result, the leader
is free to focus on developing teams and improving the organization. If the decisions a procedure allows become
irrelevant, they need to be changed. Therefore, leaders must periodically
review all procedures for relevance. Failing to do so causes confinement rather
Quality procedures help leaders at all levels achieve
freedom, increase the speed or response, and improve the quality of service by
reducing the number of decisions leaders need to make. Communications improve
communications laterally and vertically because leaders only receive the
information they need to decide. Employees are more effective when addressing problems
Leaders and workers frequently view formal procedures as limiting their freedom, however, they provide a structured format for leaders to take action without additional control or restraint. Employees who are trained well know what is expected of them in many situations allowing them to make decisions without always running to the boss for guidance. Like the well run battle drill, formal procedures direct action without additional inputs and free leaders to lead.
“Tis impossible to be sure of anything but death and taxes.” (Bullock, 1716), everything else is subject to change.
I wrote this article on the weekend of the 50th anniversary of man landing on the moon. It caused me to think about how that happened. There are lots of examples of leaders creating great things in government, business, and in social services after creating a vision of what could be dating back to the beginning of recorded history. As I study and apply leadership lessons, I found there are five principals of leaders who effectively lead change within their organizations. Those leaders set examples by living and enforcing organizational guiding principals, communicating a clear vision for the future, establishing goals and benchmarks, taking disciplined action to accomplish required tasks, and possessing humility.
guiding principals through their behavior. The old maxim, “Actions
speak louder than words,” says it all; leaders who say respect is
important and treat others respectfully are more convincing that
those who treat others disrespectfully. Whether you are new to the
organization, in a new position, or a veteran in a leadership role,
you choose your values. Ensure they are aligned with the
organizational principals, or advocate to changing them. It takes
time to establish character, but even if you have been an angry,
disrespectful, fly-off-the handle kind of a leader, you can change.
Others will notice and your character will change.
In addition to behaving in accordance with your professed and the organization’s values, leaders ensure others also develop character. You cannot ignore a direct report’s violation of an organizational principal and fire a more junior person for the same behavior. If your organization values people’s time, then the person who is consistently two minutes late for work, meetings, and leaves five minutes early needs to be held to account. Not every offense requires firing. Not every offense requires a written reprimand or other disciplinary action. Often pulling a person aside and pointing out their faux-pas is enough to gain compliance. When misbehavior is displayed by otherwise compliant people it may signal trouble. Pulling that person aside presents an opportunity to address the trouble and become aware of their problem.
A few years ago I gave in and went to the eye doctor because I noticed road signs were not as clear as I remembered them. I needed glasses. Over time my vision dulled and I needed someone to help me see clearly again. An organization’s vision is the same. In the beginning everyone knows why they belong, where they are headed, what they are doing, and how to do it. As the organization grows older, the vision fades, just like people’s eyesight.
Leaders often think
they only need to cast their vision before their followers once and
they are good for life. They are wrong. There is a reason all major
religions have services on a weekly basis. That reason is to refresh
the soul. Face it, after ten years of church going, you probably have
heard all there is to hear. Services keep your faith fresh.
Likewise leaders need to continually project their vision for the organization. Those who work in the organization need to see it so they can properly care for clients and customers. Clients and customers need to see it so they understand why you do what you do; it builds brand loyalty. Vendors and contractors need to see it so they are on the same page. Leaders, from each member of the Board of Directors, to the shop foreman, need to see it so they can magnify and amplify the vision for their followers.
are not one and done. Leaders constantly need to proclaim their
vision to inspire everyone they encounter. Leaders develop
credibility when they not only talk about their vision, but take
action to make it a reality.
Based on the
leader’s vision, the leader and junior leaders establish goals to
accomplish the mission and vision. Goals should be specific,
measurable, attainable, relevant, time bound, and task oriented. Many
of you will recognize the SMARTT goal setting model. I added and
extra tee for the task steps.
Task steps are
important. They provide the directions to achieve the goal. The goal
is your What. The task steps are the How.
Leaders should establish a plan for goal setting. Good goal setting happens in cycles. The first step is to assess. Your assessment establishes your starting point and destination. As you walk your selected path, you will encounter life and may find you stray from your planned path. Periodically check your progress and adjust course as necessary. As you move along, you learn; apply those lessons along your journey. As you near the end of your journey, it is time to assess again and establish new goals. Click here http://bit.ly/2YfQH0Y for a short lesson on the goal setting cycle.
ensures accomplishment of critical tasks for mission success.
Discipline has several meanings. In this case I intend it to mean
controlled behavior resulting from training (adapted from
Action means activities required to complete the mission. Disciplined
actions are planned and controlled activities that are scheduled,
measured, supervised, and coordinated across all teams in an
To be effective,
organizations must plan. Planning includes scheduling, measuring,
supervising and coordinating actions. Planning requires discipline.
Planning also identifies key performance indicators. Controls are
necessary to establish measures of performance and effectiveness
(insert link to that blog). Supervision is only effective if
supervisors know what they are looking for in performance and
effectiveness. Coordination ensures things are going according to the
plan across all teams. Coordination communicates the plan and status
of activities to everyone.
An example of disciplined action are the steps required to make a widget and ship it to a customer. In the planning stage, leaders determine what needs to be done, what resources are required, what will be measured, how often, by whom, and how to coordinate across all the teams. The organization identifies the material, machines, and people required to make the widget. They order material and hire people. They schedule activities such as when raw material should arrive, when workers need to be at their machines, when product will be shipped, and the means for delivery to customers. Coordination is required so there is material on hand to manufacture widgets when workers are available; trucks are available when enough widget are ready to ship, and adequate capacity exists to meet deadlines. Coordination is an on going process. For example, if machine operators are sick, it causes reduction in production. The shipping team needs to know so they can adjust shipping schedules.
Much of this step is as much management as leadership. Management is an important leadership skill. People are involved in each part of disciplined action and that is where the leadership comes into play. Fail to lead disciplined action, and your organization may achieve a task, but it will not remain successful.
I remember reading
in Seven Habits that Stephen Covey claimed to have studied great
people for years before boiling down their secret of success to seven
habits. I thought, “Why would anyone dedicate themselves to such
work?” I found myself reviewing Good to Great a short while ago and
read Jim Collins’ assertion that Level 5 Leaders are humble. That
was not the first or last place I encountered that idea, but it
struck me then how many times I learned that point from so many other
sources including people I chose to follow. I now wonder if Covey
stumbled across those seven habits the same way I found the five
principals of leading change.
Humility is an
important trait for being a good or great leader. Great leaders do
all the things I present in this article, but they also recognize
they lack certain skills, lack knowledge, lack connections, and other
important resources to make things happen. Great leaders recognize
they need to rely on others to help them accomplish the
organization’s mission. If they are the smartest, fastest, most
skilled person in the organization, they are leading the wrong group
of people, and they know that. They seek out people who are smarter
they them. They hire others with greater skills. They know these
others are their superiors and they are blessed to lead them, or put
another way, they know they are blessed those high speed individuals
choose to follow them.
You can develop
humility. It is a skill that can be learned. I saw it in action
during my first General Staff meeting. In a General’s staff meeting
there are standard scripts everyone follows to ensure the General
receives the information he needs to lead the force and make
important decisions. According the script, other staff sections
presented their canned information to the General. Then it was my
Colonel’s turn to present.
At the time, Colonel Shawn was the Director of Logistics. On schedule, the slides with the logistics information were projected on the screen. COL Shawn hardly noticed. Instead he looked at the General and said, “Sir, I know you’ve seen my slides and our information is pretty good this month. If you don’t mind, I want to tell you about the great work that Kris Skinner has done this month with our surface maintenance program.” The Colonel went on about LTC Skinner’s accomplishments that month. At the end of the story COL Shawn asked the General if he had any questions about his directorate’s data. When the General said he did not, Shawn introduced the next staff chief.
I was impressed. I thought it was a one time thing to bring some attention to the boss about good work done by his followers. The following month however, COL Shawn had another story about the good work another member of the section. Again at the end, instead of getting into the data on the slide he moved onto the next speaker. COL Shawn had someone every month he highlighted at the staff meeting. Now of course none of those workers acted independently. Col Shawn knew what each was doing and used all his leadership ability to encourage them to do the greatest job they could do. Each individual responded by regularly exceeding the standards and expectations.
COL Shawn was promoted to Brigadier General. He is a confident and competent leader. He accomplished plenty of big things in his own right. Yet when ever he talks with someone, he learns about them. He shares what he learned in a recent book he read. He asks what he can do to make things better for lower-level leaders. He practices humility.
Change is inevitable. Leaders must navigate future changes. Even choosing to maintain a certain level or quality of business without growth or shrinkage requires organizational change. Laws change. Customers change. Demand for products changes. Organizational staff change. Leaders who do not lead change will find there is no one left to lead. Leaders effect change by creating a desired vision of the future. They set and help followers set specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, time bound goals with task steps. They plan and manage disciplined action to accomplish the mission and change. They are humble people who understand they still have much to learn. Change is coming. Are you leading to adapt to that change?
/ —- Photo Credits —-/
Coins by Steve Buissinne from Pixabay using pixabay license.
High standards of behavior are required for organizations to successfully complete their missions. Leaders are responsible for setting, training, and enforcing standards in order to create a culture where standards are voluntarily followed. Organizations that establish and expect compliance with standards attract Ike minded applicants. Employees, volunteers, and other stakeholders learn to trust the organization, know the character of their workers, and understand their leaders.
It takes time to codify standards of behavior. Your standard operating procedures, protocols, employment guidelines, and similar documents will be easier to write when everyone knows and understands the organization’s core values or guiding principles. Governing documents misaligned with organizational guiding principles encourage people to act outside those principles. Well written governing documents aligned with core principles ensures people understand how to behave even when they do not know a specific rule. Written rules are shorter, easier to understand, and are more likely to be followed.
Often SOPs, employee manuals, and other written rules take many pages. If the reasons a document is written is based on the core principals, there is no need to restate they whys. Employees who understand the guiding principals will see them in the rules without additional explanations. It is uncommon for all of those documents to be composed at the same time. If the whys are not all based on the common principles, then the authors need all those extra words and pages to spell out the whys for the rules.
Employees, volunteers, and contractors follow the rules better because the standards they establish are aligned with organizational principals. Training time is reduced and retention increased because there is less to teach and learn. As a result, employees will probably do the right thing without even knowing what a rule or procedure is.
Training begins when you first admit someone into your organization. Start with the core principles. Teach your new people what each value means to your group. Give examples of behavior that is compliant and non-compliant. Explain how complying with principles establishes trust across the organization allowing greater effectiveness.
Training supervisors about core principles and methods of enforcing standards is also important. Nothing destroys trust within an organization than repeated reprimands conducted outside the organizational principals. Likewise, failing to correct behaviors outside expected norms slowly eats away at trust developed between key players. Supervisors and other key leaders need to know how to adjust their leadership style to the situation presented.
Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard introduced the idea of situational leadership in the late 1960s. Since then, others have built on those ideas and demonstrated how to apply the principals of situational leadership to a wide variety of circumstances across the public, private, and non-profit sectors. Taking time to teach your leaders how to adapt their leadership style to meet your organization’s objectives and within your guiding principals increases effectiveness.
After training your new people and leaders about your organizations guiding principals, those standards need to be enforced. When new leaders read statements like this they often envision a drill sergeant demanding basic trainees do push-ups for infractions, or a tough CEO calling an errant employee into the office, chewing them out, and then firing them. These are two possible methods of enforcing standards, but neither works well for long.
On-the-spot corrections for misbehavior can be given in a calm fashion that shows respect and caring. A machine operator found working without eye and ear protection can be told to stop. The supervisor inquires about whether the employee understands what the standard is and why it is important to follow it. If the employee lacks the knowledge, the supervisor provides a quick refresher training and sends the operator to don their protective equipment before resuming their work.
A middle manager who observes such a violation might stop the work and inquire about who the operator’s supervisor is. The supervisor is summoned to the work sight. The manager can use this opportunity to coach the supervisor. In the end, the worker is protected, the organization accomplishes its mission, and the culture of compliance grows.
Making corrections in a respectful fashion and demonstrating expected behaviors helps create a voluntary climate of compliance. People know that following the core principals results in rewards. Failing to comply results in punishment.
Some of you reading this are thinking about why the above statements will never work. You think the union will never allow such supervisory oversight. Some think that leading volunteers requires sometimes turning a blind eye. Others think that they are not in a supervisory capacity and therefore have no ability to influence others. If you are a real leader, you use what power you do have to influence others to comply with the organization’s guiding principals. That may require you to allow others to take action.
In the union example, there frequently are requirements for management to follow certain steps to reward good behavior and punish bad. Meet with union representatives frequently to ensure they understand you want the best people in the organization and the important role the union has helping you keep the good people and separating those who will not comply. The union has a responsibility to equally represent all the workers in their membership, those who perform well as well as those who feel slighted because they are not meeting expectations. Such engagements over time bring union representatives around to looking differently at employee-management relationships.
In the case of volunteers, first ask yourself if you really want a volunteer that behaves in such a way that they endanger themselves, others, or have the potential to cast a dark light on the good work your organization does. Think about ways you can influence volunteers to comply with your guiding principals. People who volunteer believe in the cause. They are easier to influence than paid employees, You have to learn to lead them. It is likely that the threat of separation has a greater impact because their association with you is indeed voluntary. Knowing bad behaviors will not be tolerated ensures compliance. Frequently organizations fail to train volunteers to the same level as employees. Is it any wonder that volunteers may not comply with guiding principals. It is hard to comply with standards they do not know or understand. Taking time to help them understand standards and providing examples of compliance improves trust and helps your volunteers work better. Volunteers who work well improve outcomes for those the organization serves.
Leading team members you do not supervise does pose special challenges. FEMA’s national emergency operation center occupies a large room in Washington, D.C. not far from the Capital. Few of the seats in the room are designated for FEMA officials. Most are set aside for leaders of organizations FEMA works with during disasters. Those members include representatives from the press, various classes of industry, financial associations, think tanks, nongovernmental organizations, non-FEMA government agencies, state, and major metropolitan governments and agencies, and a variety of other interests. None of them answer to FEMA; rather they all answer to their respective organizations. Regardless of who employs each team member, FEMA leads everyone in the room to accomplish the common goal of resolving the disaster, preserving life and property, and keeping elected officials and citizens informed.
Accomplishing that kind of leadership occurs because the FEMA officials use a variety of sources of power to influence each team member. The FEMA leader needs to quickly learn about not only the interests of each organization but also the representatives. They have to apply a different leadership style to each situation. FEMA has often been attacked about ineffective post-disaster relief efforts, but when you think about all the competing interests, it is amazing they accomplish anything. To be effective, those leaders need to establish high standards, teach them to the team members, and then enforce them in such a way others willingly follow.
Setting and enforcing standards is a key responsibility for leaders. If leaders do not enforce established high standards, followers accept lower standards. Leaders establish trust by enforcing standards. In time, enforcement creates a climate of voluntary compliance. Training what behaviors comply and fail to comply with guiding principals ensures everyone knows what the expectations are. Knowledge develops into understanding and permits the organization to operate effectively with few written rules. People know what is expected of them, and what they can expect from others. Trust develops that others in the organization behave and perform at high levels and take reasonable risks. Learning to find the right leadership style for different situations allows leaders to coach, counsel, mentor, guide, and discipline others to comply with organizational standards depending on the circumstances. As a result, the people in the organization focus on taking care of clients and accomplishing the organization’s mission.
/——————— Photo Credits ———————/
Television Test Pattern: no photographer info available from pxhere.com CC0 license. Modified by author.
Open Text Book: no photographer info available from pxhere.com CC0 license.
Overhead Group Meeting: by pixabay.com from pexels.com.
Youth Baseball Coach: no photographer info available from pxhere.com CC0 license.
White Water Rafters: by Tom Fisk at pexels.com. Modified by author.
Turnout Gear: no photographer info available from pxhere.com CC0 license.
“In any war story, but especially a true one, it’s difficult to
separate what happened from what seemed to happen. …there is
always that surreal seemingness, which makes the story seem untrue,
but which in fact represents the hard and exact truth as it seemed.”
― Tim O’Brien, The Things They Carried
A war story is just
a war story. There are no true war stories. There are some that are
blatantly false and made up, told by posers. Most are are
recollections. Sometimes they are embellished, minimized, mixed with
other memories, or just misremembered. Many people think veterans
tell stories to impart some sort of moral or lesson. However, a war
story is told to remember a loved comrade, relieve bothersome
anxiety, or to get a rise out of the listener. Sometimes the story
teller does not know why he tells the story. He just does.
I want to share two
war stories today to remember my comrades in arms who died defending
freedom. These stories are told from my perspective, what I
remember from the time I learned of each death, mixed with
conversations of those closer to the Soldier. Fairy tales begin,
“Once upon a time, in land far away…” War stories begin, …
(Once upon a time) I
remember watching CNN in the day room (in a land far away) at Diyala
Provincial Police Headquarter in Baqubah Iraq in late March. There
was a report about recent activity in the increasingly violent
insurgency. They were showing images of a bridge just outside Ramadi
where a truck from the 744th Transportation Company had
been blown up by an IED and tossed over the edge. This attack
resulted in the first war death of a New Hampshire National Guard
Soldier since Vietnam.
SPC Jeremiah Holmes
died in that attack. I did not know Holmes, but several Soldier from
my battery had been assigned to deploy with 744th. Holmes
worked with a Soldier who had been a section chief in my first
howitzer section for a couple years. Everyone I spoke with who knew
and remembered Holmes described him as a great guy. The 744th
held a farewell event for family and friends during Thanksgiving
weekend 2003. A picture of him kissing his 10 month old son on the
day 744th departed New Hampshire appeared in the paper.
That young man never knew his father. Soon he will be learning to
drive for himself.
arrived a few weeks in Iraq before we did. At the time we felt a
little safer being in a fixed site rather than traveling the roads as
744th did. Our sense of safety quickly eroded over the
next few days. Attacks around Iraq resulted in injuries to other New
Hampshire National Guard members. Two Soldiers from our company were
wounded in Mosul, but that is a different story for another time.
Even though I never met SPC Holmes, his death changed the way I
looked at the war. A few days later the insurgents directed their
attention to our humble abode.
nor SPC Holmes had been in Iraq long enough to learn about IEDs. We
all grumbled during training about how sneaky the observer
controllers (OC) were about hiding those pesky bombs. On this first
attack, 744th learned just how easy the OCs were being on
us. The insurgents were experts at hiding roadside bombs. Homes
death taught us all an important lesson about situational awareness
and the danger we faced during our time in Iraq. This lesson was
learned well. The reality was even if we detected 99% of IEDs, it
only took 1 missed IED to kill us or a comrade in arms; and that is
the beginning of my next story.
I remember (once
upon another time…) walking into our Tactical Operations Center
(TOC) on 15 October 2004 to see if they knew why our internet
connections were not operating. We had been in Iraq for several
months and little phased us so the look on the faces of the TOC staff
however told me something really bad happened explaining the internet
interruption. Before I could ask, the senior NCO walked into the
room with the phone we used to call home and secured it in a wall
locker. We were in a communications blackout. That could only mean
someone died. I hoped it was not one of ours. “What’s going
on?” I asked. The answer dashed my hopes as I learned SPC Alan
Burgess from the platoon our company had in Mosul died.
The day started like
every other patrol in the city. The squad departed the forward
operating base and found activity on the streets was normal, always a
good sign. The squad and its leader always expected attacks and
hoped for uneventful trips. Most days they did find enemy and
engaged or were engaged. Today they expected no more, no less.
In fact this platoon
had several significant engagements with the enemy during their time
in Mosul. In fact one Soldier had been shot in the chest the week
SPC Holmes died. After being shot, the squad returned to base and
drew a new tactical vest for the gunner and returned to patrol the
streets of the city. The gunner and driver had changed places on the
second patrol Just before sun rise, the patrol located the insurgents
that shot the Soldier earlier and again engaged them in a fire fight.
The gunner turned driver dismounted from the armored vehicle, to
attack the disable vehicle containing the insurgents. He was shot
again but this time in the ankle!
Today was different.
The streets were busy. People were engaged in commerce. There was
nothing to indicate death awaited them. The squad was stuck in the
normal traffic of the city with no where to maneuver. This is
exactly what the enemy was waiting for, a sitting duck.
What happened next,
happened quickly. A vehicle in the opposite lane charged directly
toward the patrol. SPC Alan Burgess saw the danger and began to
engage the enemy. According to some witnesses time slowed down as
the car came to a stop. According to others time accelerated. Each
tells the war story the way they remember it. The driver of the
attacking vehicle was dressed all in white, a sign of one who is
about to be martyred. SPC Burgess recognized that danger, but a
moment too late. As he released his machine gun to seek the safety
inside the armored vehicle, the car bomb exploded. Burgess and
civilians in the area were killed. Dozens were injured. Alan left
behind his girlfriend and four year old son.
Alan was a loved and
respected member of the unit. His loss effected everyone in some
fashion. Like Holmes death, it served as a reminder about the
fragility of life.
Neither story has a
moral. The heroes do not live happily ever after. These are war
stories, not fairy tales. Sharing these stories however provided me
an opportunity to remind people that Memorial Day is not Veteran’s
Day. It is a day to remember those who gave all defending freedom.
These stories are reminders that real people died protecting freedom.
They were not statistics. As members of the National Guard, these
two Soldiers are part of a tradition older that the U.S. Army,
protecting family, friends, and neighbors from the evil in the world.
As Memorial Day approaches, take time to attend a memorial service. Instead of becoming angry about having to wait for a passing parade, give thanks to those whose sacrifices the parade honors. Ask a veteran to tell you about a lost war comrade. Memorial Day is not about the beginning of summer. It is not about fun and family picnics. It is not a paid, work-free day. It is about remembering those who died so we may live free and enjoy our lives in peace. Remember them.
WWII Memorial Stars: pxhere.com, no other information provided. pxhere.com license.
repetition is a concept from Know, Can, Do by Ken Blanchard. It is a
simple method instructors can use during training to help students
retain what they learned. Few organizations have the money necessary
to keep outside trainers available indefinitely. Organizations must
rely on supervisors to identify ways to have employees repeat what
they learned during training, to increase the return on the training
investment. Here are three simple ways supervisors can engage
employees and increase behavior changes desired from training.
first method requires employees to verbally report what they learned
to the supervisor. The second method is to requires the employee to
type their classroom notes. The third way requires the employee to
present the information and methods learned for other employees.
Each way engages different learning strategies, increases retention,
and reinforces desired behaviors.
employees return from training they are excited about what they
learned. They often do not have time to process how to connect what
they learned with their job. As a result, desired changes in
behavior do not occur. Plan time to meet with the employee after the
training. Require the employee to tell you about the information and
techniques taught in the class. Ask the employee to demonstrate the
skills taught. Allow the employee to watch you do at least one of
the tasks taught and correct your performance as appropriate.
the employee questions about ways to implement the lessons learned
into work routines. Ask how the skills can be taught to other team
members. Before you end the meeting, task the employee with the
second method of spaced repetition, note preparation.
class notes is an important way to reinforce learning. Students
should take up to a page of notes for every hour of class. More than
that and they are not listening. Less and they have nothing to refer
to after class. Typing the notes after class creates another
repetition of the learning. Typing notes allows the student to
share what they learned with others. Typed notes are easier for
others to read. Typed notes can be stored in a file folder in a
drawer, or digitally on a computer. Weeks or years from now anyone
who was given a copy of the notes can pull them up as a reference.
great reason for preparing typed notes is to share them within your
professional network. Teaching employees to share notes with their
network provides an opportunity to communicate with people they do
not see everyday. Their notes provide a reason to open a
professional discussion with their peers and expand their influence.
Your employees derive benefits when they share their notes with
do not have to follow a formal outline, but do need an easy to follow
format. At the top of the first page of note place the title of the
class. Include the name and contact information for the instructor.
Recording the instructor’s contact information allows the student
the ability to contact the instructor in the future. It also
provides the instructor credit for the ideas presented. Include the
date(s), length, and location of the training. Tell your employee to
take credit for the notes by including his or her by-line and contact
information. People are more likely to contact the employee with
topical questions before the trainer. Good notes establish the
employee as a subject matter expert. When the employee presents the
information, another repetition occurs strengthening the important
After the credit and training information, arrange the notes so they make sense. The note taker may find it make sense to rearrange some information. Create topical groups regardless of the order presented in class. Often instructors and classes deviate from the instruction model creating situations where information is presented out of order. Making those changes makes the notes are useful. Use topic headings if appropriate. Use different fonts or bold for topic headings. If the trainer used a slide handout, refer back to it rather than typing out all the points from the slide. This is especially helpful for diagrams.
added feature of the typed notes is that it allows the employee to
prepare for the third step in the supervised, post-training, spaced
repetition; the presentation. The employee uses the typed notes as
an outline for the staff presentation at a selected time in the
future. Schedule the presentation close to the date of the original
training. The notes are the work of the employee and not subject to
any copyrights by the presenter. That means the company can
reproduce and distribute them without seeking additional permission.
An exception is if the student’s note are direct quotes from the
instructor or training material. Avoid plagiarism accusations by
requiring the employee to use his or her own words.
the presentation, the employee tells the others what he learned in
the training. He tells how he has applied the lessons in his work
and personal life and the results he observed. He shows others how
to complete one or more of the skills. He provides each an
opportunity, either individually or as a group, to practice one of
the skills. Using this method expands the knowledge of the whole
workforce for the price of sending one employee. Even if other
employees previously attended the same training, this event serves as
another spaced repetition, reinforcing the skills and knowledge
learned. The presentation develops confidence in the employee and
establishes them as a subject matter expert.
often organizations send people to training to learn but never follow
up to reinforce those lessons. The three steps outlined here provide
a model for supervisors to follow to ingrain those lessons. These
three steps spaced over time reinforce learning. Meeting with the
employee in a few days after the training allows them to show you
what was learned. Requiring the employee to type class notes and
provides another repetition. Sharing those notes allow employees to
expand their sphere of influence. Conducting a brief training event
reinforces the learning for the employee who attended the training,
and also broadcasts some of those skills and knowledge across the
organization. Using spaced repetition is a great way to increase
your company’s return on its training investment.
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said, “Education is what remains after one has forgotten what one
has learned in school.” It is all those things you know, but you
could not tell someone how or why you know it. If you think back to
your school days and the lessons you learned you would find out that
you did not learn as much as you think. You learned the same things
over again in different grades. For example you learned about the
Mayflower and Paul Revere’s ride in First Grade. When you in perhaps
Fourth Grade, you spend another year learning American History but
instead of the fairy tale version, you identified and learned what
caused the pilgrims and patriots to act. When you studied American
History again in middle school, you identified the consequences of
the actions of key events and figures in history. In high school,
you were asked to think critically about how history could have been
different if historical people made different choices. Your learning
about American History was spaced over time. Each time you added to
what you previously learned. As an adult instructor or leader, find
ways to introduce spaced repetition into your training. As a
trainer you can build on earlier lessons whether the training event
is a few hours or a few weeks.
As a trainer you
have a responsibility to develop lessons that build on each other to
reinforce earlier lessons and help students understand why skills and
information taught earlier are important. Using spaced repetition is
easier when your lessons occur over days or weeks. Spacing important
learning points in a lesson that lasts only hours is more difficult
but not impossible. Start by knowing the learning goals of your
lesson. Here is a link to preparing learning goals:
After you identified
the important learning goal of your lesson, you know what points to
target for spaced repetition. Arrange your lessons so each learning
goal is a logical building block. As you complete lessons for each
learning goal, do a quick review to show how learning goals build on
each other. Each review serves as a spaced repetition of early
Another method to
employ spaced repetition is to develop practical exercises that
require students to use skills learned earlier. For example if you
are teaching a group of students to navigate in the woods you would
teach them how to read a map, how to use a compass, how to calculate
ground distance, and how to calculate the difference between the
magnetic and map north readings. After teaching the lesson on
distance, you give the students an azimuth and direct them to move
along that azimuth for a certain distance. This activity requires
them to use the compass and practice the skill of determining
distance while moving along the ground. In the final exercise you
give them two points on a map to go and find on the ground. This
exercise requires your students to read a map, use a compass,
calculate the difference in north readings, and measure distance on a
map and on the ground. Each exercise builds on earlier lessons and
gives an additional repetition space over the course of the training
event for each learning goal.
occurring over a longer period of time allow instructors to create
more space before each repetition improving retention. Begin each
new session with a brief review of prior learning. Ask students to
share how they applied what they learned in their lives. Ask for
them to report on the results achieved. At the end of the session,
ask the students questions to make connections with past lessons.
Ask how implementing today’s lessons will improve results by adding
the skills learned today to the skills they learned before.
Repeating information throughout a training event allows students to make connections to each learning goal. Students understand how each learning goal related to the others. Students improve their understanding of the overall main idea by making connections between learning goals. Spacing the repetition of the basic building blocks of the main idea reinforce those foundational lessons improving retention. Developing various exercises to support each learning goal allows the student to see, feel, hear, and understand the skill in practice by doing it. Spaced repetition is a great way to improve your students’ skills when they return to their world. They know, understand, and do what they were taught which is the objective of every training; changing behavior. Add spaced repetition to your training and watch the light bulbs illuminate in your students.
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Character is the intersection of a variety of factors. Habits and values are two of those factors. Other people make judgments about your values from by observing your habits. When you tell people you value providing quality feedback to your followers, that is a statement of a value you hold. People who hear you observe your behavior and decide if you really value coaching and counseling your workers. When they see you counseling others, they know you value that behavior. On the other hand, if you never
coach and counsel your employees, everyone knows you are all talk and counseling others really is not important to you. Given that habits are nothing more than routines people use to simplify life, then deciding to change your habits enables you to align your behavior with your stated values. When those habits involve influencing others, you become a better leader.
Anyone can apply the principals in this post to any habit they want to change or create. For the purpose of discussion, I will continue to use the counseling example from the introduction because it is a leadership task often overlooked by supervisors. The steps are simple; the principals sound.
The principals for changing habits are the same as those for problem solving. Work on one habit at a time. Understand what habit you want to change and why. Know the desired result. Develop a solid plan to implement change. Identify people for support. Steps for habit change include:
identifying the habit you want to change,
identifying the motivation for change,
identifying the cues or triggers, what is the routine, and what is your reward
identifying where in the cycle you can make a change,
developing a plan to implement the change,
evaluating your results.
Like setting a goal,
you need to be specific about what habit you want to change. Provide
answers to all the who, what, where, why, when, and how questions.
Write down those answers. Writing down things helps organize the
thought process. When you write down things, you can let those
thoughts out of your head and delve deeper into your analysis of the
In our example, you want to become a better counselor to those you supervise. Counseling helps them become better employees that work independently. Employees that work independently allow you to focus
on the future so your group remains relevant to the organization. Your planning ensures mission accomplishment which creates happy customers. Happy customers develop loyalty improving everyone’s job security. So employee counseling is important.
encourages us to start with why. Understanding WHY allows you to
focus on your motivation. This helps you identify what is important
to you. After you identify what is important, compare those values
to your habitual actions in different situations or events. Ask
yourself if those actions are congruent with your values. Sometimes
your habits align with your values. Sometimes your habits run
contrary to your values. You do not realize this until you analyze
In our example of
counseling employees, you say it is important, yet at the end of
every evaluation period you realize you did not counsel your
employees. You identify it as a habit you want to develop. You
identify your motivation for developing this habit as becoming an
effective leader. You know effective leaders improve organizations.
Every habit has a
cue or trigger. The cue is the signal to begin a routine outside
your thought process. When the routine is complete, you receive some
sort of reward. To change your habit, figure out the cue or trigger,
identify the routine, and the reward. Take time to write down the
answer to each part of the whole habit so you can better understand
In the case of
counseling employees, identify what cues block counseling sessions.
What actions or events prevent you from taking time to prepare and
execute employee counseling? What rewards can you establish to
encourage you to change your behavior? Write down your answers. Use
this information to create cues to execute the counseling. Calendar
reminders are simple and easy triggers to begin a habit you want to
Now that you
understand the habit and your motivation for change, focus your
attention on change you can invoke. Common strategies include
recognizing where the cue or trigger is initiated and avoiding that
trigger, substituting a different routine, or changing the reward for
the old routine so the habit is not rewarding. Treat this part of
the process like a science experiment. Try different approaches at
different parts of the habit cycle until you find something that
works. Be easy on yourself. Habits form to reduce the work our
brain has to do. It takes time and repetition to break an old habit
and create a new habit.
Preparing to counsel
employees is a time intensive process. Once you develop a habit
cycle, the process becomes easier because your mind creates shortcuts
to execute the key parts of counseling. In addition to calendar
reminders, notify the employee of a date and time for the counseling.
If an employee knows about the ‘appointment’ they will help you
prepare. The employee will remind you. They may offer ideas about
topics they want to discuss during the counseling. Learn to take
notes about performance during the week. Figure out which cues work
to develop routines to make counseling easier.
As you move down the
time continuum, measure the progress you made with your new habit.
Figure out how it made your life better. Use this success to start a
new habit cycle to align another habit with your values.
As you start to
counsel your employees, you measure your progress from the documented
counselings. Each session documents the time and person counseled.
Use the data to learn whether you are meeting the intervals you
wanted, or if you need to tweak your routine a bit to meet those time
hacks. Figure out how you can measure the employees improvements
from their regular meetings with you. Compare their new behaviors to
those occurring before you started your counseling. At the end of a
rating period, you find you have plenty of documentation to validate
As your habits
become more aligned with your values, you develop character. People
will believe you will do what you say because what you say, you do.
They develop trust you are the person you say you are.
As you begin to habitually counsel your employees, they learn you care about their success. They know you listen to what they say. They trust you to look out for their welfare by helping them improve. You become their role model; someone who has character. You developed the power to influence their behavior and they follow you. Your senior leaders heed your advice because of the improvements you demonstrated increasing your influence.
The foundation of leadership is character. Two defining factors of character are your values and habits. Your habits tell others what your values are. They see your values in everything you do. Creating habits aligned with your values increases the influence you have with senior leaders, your peers, and those who report to you. Often leadership instruction sounds much like personal self-improvement. However, when you create new habits you develop power and influence, create trust, and cause the change you desire in others through your own actions. When your words and actions influence others you are a leader regardless of your title. Analyze your habits. Increase your influence. Become a better leader.
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Whether you are teaching adults a college course lasting several weeks, workers about a new process in a half-day training, or conducting on off-site seminar lasting a few days, breaking the ice establishing norms, and identifying expectations is a critical first step. Setting the stage is an often overlooked learning activity by inexperienced trainers. New trainers believe the time available to puke out their information is too valuable to waste getting to know each other, what comes next in class, or how student performance will be evaluated. However, adults learn better when they know something about the others in class, understand class expectations, and know how their learning will be evaluated. Using these suggested activities will help you create a climate to prepare your adult students to learn at their best. Tailor introductory activities to meet your time frames.
important. It is easy to stand at the front of the class and brag
about your background, then go around the room asking each student to
share their name and something about themselves. That really does
little to help students connect to each other. There are dozens of
ice breaker ideas. Here are two.
Ask students to break out into groups of three to six. Have them select a recorder. Each student reports one thing that makes them unique, what they do in their current work position, any special resources they bring to the class, and a question or concern they have about the class (i). Give the groups 15 to 20 minutes to work on the exercise and then report back to the class. This activity allows a small group to meet with others, and the whole class to develop an understanding about the class members as a whole.
A second introduction activity is a mixer. During this activity, students form two lines facing each other. For two minutes the pairs discuss whatever they want. At the end of the two minutes, everyone moves to their right or left, those on the end spin around facing the opposite direction. Repeat as many times as desired (ii). This activity allows each student to meet several students and know something about the others.
Stephen Covey talks about seeking first to understand. You can do this in your class by finding out what your students expect during class. Ask the class what they expect to take from the class. You may choose to record these expectations on a flip chart or whiteboard. Completing this exercise allows you to understand what students think about the topic of the class. You may find that some of their expectations are not in line with your learning objectives. This provides you an opportunity to adjust your training to meet student expectations, or explain why the training is not set up to meet those expectations.
Now that you
understand their expectations, you share yours. Your list may
include expectations about breaks, class participation, note taking,
or any other expectation you want to share. This activity allows
students to understand how best to interact with each other, the
material, and you during the training or educational event.
Tell Students about
In this part of the
introduction, tell the students how you conduct your class. Letting
students know you ask lots of questions helps them prepare answers.
Likewise if they know you are going to present some material, ask
some checks on learning questions, and follow up with a group
activity for each learning step, they can mentally prepare and know
what comes next. Tell them if you are planning on doing individual
worksheets, small group exercises, videos, and what to expect in the
way of slide decks.
learning goals. Depending on the course of instruction, you may have
one or several terminal learning goals. Each terminal learning goal
may be supported by one or more enabling learning goals. Develop one
or more task steps or learning activities to support each enabling
learning goal. During the initial introduction, provide only the
terminal and enabling learning goals. Introduce the supporting task
steps and learning activities at the being of the block of
instruction for that learning goal.
Tell students how they will be evaluated. No one likes a pop test at the end of training. Let them know if there will be a test. Will it be a written, hands-on, or a little of both. If written, how is the test constructed; short answer, multiple choice, fill in the blank, etc. Adult students need to know how they will be evaluated so they can participate in ways that maximize their individual learning styles.
Tell Them about You
Before you talk
about yourself, talk about the facility. Where are the bathrooms and
emergency exits? Are there any safety issues they need to know?
What is they wifi password? These are simple things that reduce
yourself. Bragging turns off people. Tell a story that is relevant
to what students will be learning. Tell students why your story is
important to help them learn. Share why you made choices you made,
and how those choices affected your learning. Be modest. Let
students know you made a mistake or two on your journey. Your
mistakes communicate you are still learning and it is okay for them
to make mistakes in class. The whole point of your introduction is
to establish, in a personable way, why students should listen to what
teaching and leadership style. Let them know if you prefer to be
contacted at a certain time of the day. Provide contact information
so they can reach you with questions after class.
A quality introduction sets the stage and establishes the climate for your training or educational event. Students develop a better understanding of others in the class with brief introductions establishing trust. They know your expectations, those of other students, and have an opportunity to share their expectations with you. Introducing learning objectives ensures students understand the topics they will learn. Discussing how learning will be evaluated allows students to prepare for the evaluation. Letting students know something about you establishes reasons they should trust you as a teacher and instructor. Tailoring introduction activities to the time allowed for the training ensures students are prepared to learn. This learning step is easy to skip, but reduces the effectiveness of training. Experienced professionals use introductions to create a positive learning environment for their students.